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Arabica and Robusta, Introduction

   Arabica and Robusta, Introduction

✔ 3 min read

The time that we are tired or have a hard day, for many of us a cup of coffee is the best choice to run away from all hustle-bustle of the world and keep your body and health safe. we all have a common interest in caffeine! For these reasons and many like them, we better know different types of coffee that are in the world, The coffee plants have different breeds, in this section, we will introduce you more to two types of breeds Arabica and Robusta.


Coffea arabica

Around 60% of world production is Coffea arabica, also known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica coffee". It is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated.

Arabica beans, which have the highest production of coffee in the world, are more expensive and, of course, tastier than other types. The trees of this type of coffee are planted at altitudes of 800 to 2000 meters above the ground and for this reason, it is also called mountain coffee. The Arabica coffee tree is native to the highlands of Yemen, Sudan, and Ethiopia, but these days countries such as Brazil, Jamaica, and Colombia are the best producers. Arabica coffee beans contain about one and a half percent caffeine, which is less than Robusta. However, they have more fat and sourness, and these features make them taste more pleasant. Arabica plants are less resistant to conditions and pests and are generally more difficult to maintain and grow due to their sensitivities. The ideal temperature for growing Arabica is between 15 and 25 degrees Celsius.




Coffea canephora

Robusta Coffee which is the common name for Coffea canephora is one of the coffee species which is originated in central and western sub-Saharan African.



It is planted at low altitudes up to 800 or 900 meters. These trees are taller and more resistant than Arabica trees. This type of coffee is less cultivated in the world because it has fewer fans. This is due to the high amount of caffeine and consequently its more bitter taste. Those who prefer heavy and bitter drinks such as espresso have a good relationship with Robusta coffee. Robusta coffee is mostly grown in Vietnam, Brazil, Indonesia, and India. Robusta is more resistant to pests and diseases, it is more adapted to hot weather and
It can withstand temperatures up to 36 degrees Celsius.

Some differences between Arabica and Robusta coffee

 

Arabica

Robusta

Date species described

1753

1895

Chromosomes (2n)

44

22

Time from flower to ripe cherry

9 months

10-11 months

Flowering

after rain

irregular

Ripe cherries

fall

stay

Yield (kg beans/ha)

1500-3000

2300-4000

Root system

deep

shallow

Optimum temperature (yearly average)

15-24° C

24-30° C

Optimal rainfall

1500-2000 mm

2000-3000 mm

Growth optimum

1000-2000 m

0-700 m

Hemileia vastatrix

susceptible

resistant

Koleroga

susceptible

tolerant

Nematodes

susceptible

resistant

Tracheomycosis

resistant

susceptible

Coffeeberry disease

susceptible

resistant

Caffeine content of beans

0.8-1.4%

1.7-4.0%

Shape of bean

flat

oval

Typical brew characteristics

acidity

bitterness, full

body

average 1.2%

average 2.0%





*Some information credited to Wikipedia


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